Diagnosing KCS


Ocular surface diseases are disorders of the surface of the cornea, the transparent layer that forms the front of the eye.  Allergies, infections, immune reactions, hormonal deficiencies, injuries, abnormal growths, nerve damage, the environment, genetic predisposition and certain medications can decrease tear production or can interfere with normal distribution of tears. Identifying and treating the underlying cause is an important step in the treatment of this disorder.

Ocular surface diseases can seriously impact an animal’s eyesight and quality of life.  Signs and symptoms may include red eyes, frequent rubbing of the eye area with paws, watery eyes, tearing, with tear-staining of fur around eyes, accumulation of secretions and/or debris on eyelashes, eyelids and lid margins and evidence of pain or soreness near the animal’s eyes when you try to clean them.

Keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS) is a scientific term for “dry eye”.  Tears are vitally important in helping to keep the cornea, the clear outer covering of the eye that lets in light, healthy.

KCS occurs when tears cease to be produced in sufficient amounts or the quality of the tear film diminishes due to evaporation. This results in the loss of the function of tears. With KCS, the cornea is deprived of oxygen & nutrients and becomes irritated.  Infection can then set in, which can lead to corneal damage and possibly blindness.

Many cases of keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS) continue to go undiagnosed or under-treated.  Proper diagnosis and management can only be provided by specialized professionals, with the assistance of effective diagnostic tools and reliable treatment options. I-MED Animal Health is focused on providing veterinary professionals with the most innovative and effective products at an affordable price.


Allergies, infections, immune reactions, hormonal changes 


The surface of the eye is covered by a thin layer of tears which perform several functions.  Tears keep the eye surface wet, so oxygen can be delivered to the cornea.  The cornea is living tissue that requires oxygen and nutrients, like any other body tissue, to remain healthy.  Other body tissues rely on blood vessels to supply these nutrients; however, the cornea has no blood vessels and it must rely on tears to allow the necessary oxygen and nutrients to reach eye cells. 


Tears are highly complex lubricants for the eye, produced by tear glands under the upper eyelid and in the third eyelid. They consist of three layers: an oily outer layer that helps prevent evaporation; a watery middle layer; and an innermost mucous layer that helps the tear film spread across to the cornea. All three layers must be present and in balanced amounts.

When the animal blinks, the upper and lower eyelids, as well as the third eyelid, act as “windshield wipers” to spread the tears across the cornea and to keep it completely coated by the tear film. The tears then drain downward into the nose. There must be a proper combination of tear production and spreading to allow the cornea to remain clear and healthy.

Browse our diagnostic tools product offering.